This document describes various configurations for the ECI Dual-fuel conversion kit as it applies to the EMD 645 series industrial power engines. ECI conversion kits are designed to retrofit to a customer's new or existing engine. Contents for each kit include components which replace or are in addition to standard EMD parts.
Kits are supplied disassembled,with the exception of major electronic controls, to be assembled on site by customer and/or installation contractor.
Standard Rating Conditions
All engine ratings contained herein apply under the following conditions as specified in ISO 30461:
- 77° F (25° C) air intake temperature
- 29.61 in. Hg. (100 kPa) barometer
- Diesel - 18, 054 BTU/lb. (42,000 kj/kg)
- fuel (LHV)
- Gas - 900 BTU/ft3 (LHV)
- 6 in. H20 (1.49 kPa) air intake depression (max.)
- 5 in. H2O (1.24 kPa) exhaust back pressure (max.)
Data supplied herein is based on a combination of test engine results, operating units in actual commercial applications, and projected estimations. ECI is confident in the accuracy of the data provided, however actual ratings may vary slightly.
Fuel Quality Requirements
Natural gas is composed principally of Methane (CH4), with smaller quantities of other hydrocarbons, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water. The quality of the natural gas used to fuel an ECI converted engine, with respect to its percentage makeup of component gases, will directly affect the power, efficiency, emissions, and longevity of the engine. As a general rule, higher methane content results in higher fuel quality. Of the hydrocarbons listed below, Butane is the most common variable to adversely affect engine performance. Hexane is more destructive than Butane, but is seldom seen at levels high enough to cause concern. In any case, maintaining hydrocarbon levels at or below indicated target levels is necessary for achieving rated power performance. Acceptable levels (in Molar percentages) for various component gases are described below, with the sum of all non-methane hydrocarbons not to exceed 8% of the total fuel mixture.
FUEL QUALITY REQUIREMENTS - NATURAL GAS
NON- METHANE HYDROCARBONS (NMHC)
ISO & N Butane,
An engine's full rated horsepower can be achieved and actually exceeded if the fuel mixture is equal to or better than the indicated tolerances. If percentage levels of elements other than methane are too high, and rated power is required, then a program must be implemented to scrub the fuel to desired levels.
To determine the power capacity limit of poor quality gases:
Propane + Ethane + (all remaining heavier hydrocarbons X 4) = % non-methane hydrocarbons.
See the graph provided for information relative to power limits of non-methane hydrocarbons.
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Turbo Aftercooling System
Extending the performance of the aftercooling circuit is required for rated power performance. Less than optimum aftercooling will result in a reduction of maximum power output. Target air temperature inside the engine is 125° F. See temperature derate curve for correction factors above 125°F.
Certain applications require the use of modified cooling system design in order for the converted engine to run properly and produce fully rated output. Consult ECI concerning your particular project for more information.
ECI offers additional related hardware to help accurately monitor and improve your engine's performance.
- ECI's Modem Diagnostics board, can be factory installed in your engine's main electronic control unit. It provides the ability to send engine monitoring information to an operational headquarters or back to ECI via a telephone signal, so that critical data may be gathered and studied while the engine is running.
- An automated start up system, which carries out necessary system checks automatically and enables the operator to start the dual fuel engine at the push of a button.
- ECI's Low Emission Idle (LEI) system runs right and left engine banks independently during the diesel-only mode to reduce excessive smoke which can occur under low load conditions. An excellent product for systems commonly encountering long standby times, LEI operates effectively on any standard EMD diesel as well.
- An Engine Preheat systems is required for cold start situations, and is available through ECI. Heating the engine to 135° F is necessary for starting the engine without Ether.
Kit Components and Equipment Packaging
ECI conversion kits include: ECI pistons and cylinder heads; ECI Gas injectors; Pilot fuel (diesel) control system; Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and corresponding electronic components and software; Gas supply piping and necessary flow controls; Pneumatic controls, fittings and hoses; Wiring cabinets, harnesses, switches and diagrams; Water system aftercooling tanks, pumps and valves; and a complete Reference guide including Installation, Maintenance, and Parts documentation.
Basic packaging used on ECI equipment provides protection during domestic shipment only. For overseas shipment, export boxing is available for an additional cost.
All equipment, whether domestic or export, should be removed immediately from packing crates upon delivery and inspected for any possible shipping damage.
Delivery lead times may vary with quantity and configuration of orders. Please allow a minimum of 90 days from the date of purchase order received.
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Responsibility for proper installation, including machinery alignment, piping, electrical wiring, and testing, is the responsibility of the customer and or installation contractor. Upon request of the end customer, a final inspection and initial startup can be made by an ECI representative at the time of completion.
In addition to the supplied installation manual, reference manual, and video, ECI offers technical support in person and over the phone. ECI provides a complimentary service of 30-60 hours per engine as part of the conversion system purchase for inspection and a first time startup check. This service may be extended depending upon the number of units and complexity of the installation.
Information Required from the Customer
ECI requests a completed information questionnaire in order to submit accurate cost proposals. The questionnaire is located at the bottom of the Contact ECI page. The questions below are among the most pertinent listed on the actual questionnaire.
1. Is the application mobile or stationary?
2. What size is engine(s) and configurations?
3. How many units are to be converted?
4. Site location; state, country?
5. What is the quality and availability of natural gas to the application?
6. Which type of fuel source, pipeline, well head gas, or LNG, is most appropriate to the application and most readily available?
7. What are the expected ambient conditions (temperature and altitude) in which the engine will operate?
8. What is the time line of the project?
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Results shown are over a locomotive duty cycle, where idle and lower notches account for a significant percentage of the tests' duration. Consequently, the converted engine runs in full diesel mode when operating at these lower notch speeds. Thus, a majority of the total emissions over the duty cycle are created during these idle or lower throttle notch positions. Applications such as stationary generators, whose duty cycle is spent predominantly near full speed and load ranges will achieve even greater benefits in the amount of emissions reduced than is noted in the table below.